Academic Publications

2024 and in press

Gligorić, V., Van Kleef, G. A., & Rutjens, B. T. How Social Evaluations Shape Trust in 45 Types of Scientists. Plos One, in press. [link]

Gligorić, V., Clerc, R., Arkensteijn, G., Van Kleef, G. A., & Rutjens, B. T. Stereotypes and Social Evaluations of Scientists Have Different Antecedents and Consequences. Public Understanding of Science, in press.

Gligorić, V. & Obradović, S. (2024). Active rejection or passive indifference? Mixed-methods evidence on national (dis)identification. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Hornsey, M. J. The psychology of science rejection. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, in press. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Hanel, P. H. P., Rutjens, B. T., Bono, S. A., Chen, Y. H., & Haddock, G. Scientists, speak up! Source impacts trust in health advice across five countries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, in press.

Folk, D., Rutjens, B.T., Van Elk, M., & Heine, S.J. Dare to know! The existential costs of a faith in science. Journal of Positive Psychology, in press. [link]

Većkalov, B., Zarzeczna, N., McPhetres, J., van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2024). Psychological distance to science as a predictor of science skepticism across domains. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 50(1), 18–37. [link]


Većkalov, B., van Stekelenburg, A., van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2023). Who Is Skeptical About Scientific Innovation? Examining Worldview Predictors of Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology, and Human Gene Editing Attitudes. Science Communication45(3), 337-366. [link]

Vegt, K. R., Elberse, J. E., Rutjens, B. T., Voogt, M. H., & Baâdoudi, F. (2023). Impacts of citizen science on trust between stakeholders and trust in science in a polarized context. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 25(6), 723-736.

Rutjens, B. T., Ackers, C. A., & van Kleef, G. A. (2023). I’m (not) sorry: Interpersonal effects of neutralizations after a transgression. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 29(4), 831-848. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Većkalov, B., & Rutjens, B. T. (2023). Spirituality and intentions to engage in Covid-19 protective behaviours. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 17(8), e12765. [link]

van Mulukom, V., Turpin, H., Haimila, R., Purzycki, B. G., Bendixen, T., Kundtová Klocová, E., Řezníček, D., Coleman, T. J. III, Maraldi, E., Sevinç, K., Schjoedt, U., Rutjens, B. T., & Farias, M. (2023). What do non-religious non-believers believe in? Secular worldviews around the world. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 15(1), 143-156. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Bertlich, T., Većkalov, B., & Rutjens, B. T. (2023). Spirituality is associated with COVID-19 vaccination skepticism. Vaccine, 41(1), 226-235. [link]


Rutjens, B. T., & Većkalov, B. (2022). Conspiracy beliefs and science rejection. Current Opinion in Psychology, 101392. [link]

Gligorić, V., van Kleef, G. A., & Rutjens, B. T. (2022). Social evaluations of scientific occupations. Scientific Reports, 12, 18339. [link]

Martens, J. P., & Rutjens, B. T. (2022). Spirituality and religiosity contribute to ongoing COVID-19 vaccination rates: Comparing 195 regions around the world. Vaccine: X, 100241. [link]

Gligorić, V., Feddes, A.R, & Doosje, B. (2022). Political bullshit receptivity and its correlates: a cross-country validation of the concept. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 10(2), 411-429. [link]

Ruggeri, K., Panin, A., Vdovic, M., Većkalov, B. et al. (2022). The globalizability of temporal discounting. Nat Hum Behav. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Zarzeczna, N., & van der Lee, R. (2022). Science rejection in Greece: Spirituality predicts vaccine scepticism and low faith in science in a Greek sample. Public Understanding of Science, 31 (4), 428 – 436. [link]

Pauer, S., Rutjens, B.T., Ruby, M.B., Perino, G., & van Harreveld, F. (2022). Meating conflict: Toward a model of ambivalence-motivated reduction of meat consumption. Foods11(7):921. [link]

Hoogeveen, S., Haaf, J.M., Bulbulia, J.A. et al. (2022). The Einstein effect provides global evidence for scientific source credibility effects and the influence of religiosity. Nature Human Behavior. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Niehoff, E., & Heine, S. J. (2022). The (im-)moral scientist? Measurement and framing effects shape the association between scientists and immorality. PLoS ONE,17(10): e0274379. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Sengupta, N., van der Lee, R., van Koningsbruggen, G. M., Martens, J. P., Rabelo, A., & Sutton, R. M. (2022). Science skepticism across 24 countries. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 13(1), 102-117. [link]


Zarzeczna, N., Većkalov, B., Gligorić, V., & Rutjens, B.T. (2021). Letter to the Editors of Psychological Science: Boosting Understanding is Unlikely to Correct False Beliefs About Most Science Domains: Regarding van Stekelenburg et al. (2021). Psychological Science. [link]

Većkalov, B., Zarzeczna, N., Niehoff, E., McPhetres, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). A matter of time… Temporal orientation and perception contribute to the ideology gap in climate change scepticism. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 78, 101703 [link]

Gligorić, V., Silva, M., Eker, S. G., van Hoek, N., Nieuwenhuijzen, E., Popova, U., & Zeighami, G. (2021). The usual suspects: How psychological motives and thinking styles predict the endorsement of well-known and COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 35(5), 1171-1181. [link]

Gligorić, V., Vilotijević, A., & Većkalov, B. (2021). Does the term matter? The labeling effect on the perception of ethnic minorities: The case of The Romani in Serbia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 85, 69-81. [link]

Martens, J. P., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). Book review of The Acceleration of Cultural Change by R. Alexander Bentley and Michael J. O’Brien (2017). Journal of Cognition and Culture, 21, 202-202. [link]

Van Mulukom, V., Muzzulini, B., Rutjens, B. T., van Lissa, C.J., & Farias, M. (2021). The psychological impact of threat and lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exacerbating factors and mitigating actions. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11 (7), 1318-1329. [link]

Noordewier, M. K., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). Personal need for structure shapes the perceived impact of reduced personal control. Personality and Individual Differences, 170, 110478. [link]

Ruggeri, K., Većkalov, B., Bojanić, L., Andersen, T. L., Ashcroft-Jones, S., Ayacaxli, N., Barea-Arroyo, P., Berge, M. L., Bjørndal, L. D., Bursalıoğlu, A., Bühler, V., Čadek, M., Çetinçelik, M., Clay, G., Cortijos-Bernabeu, A., Damnjanović, K., Dugue, T. M., Esberg, M., Esteban-Serna, C., … Folke, T. (2021). The general fault in our fault lines. Nature Human Behaviour. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., & van der Lee, R. (2021). Science skepticism in times of COVID-19. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 24, 276-283. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., van der Lee, R., & Zarzeczna, N. (2021). A group processes approach to antiscience beliefs and endorsement of “alternative facts”. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 24, 513-517. [link]


Gligorić, V. & Vilotijević, A. (2020). “Who said it?” How contextual information influences perceived profundity of meaningful quotes and pseudo-profound bullshit. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34(2), 535–542. [link]

Storm, I., Rutjens, B. T., & van Harreveld, F. (2020). Personal experience or cultural tradition: The difference between Christian identity in the Netherlands and Denmark. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 10, 428-443. [link]

Van Elk, M., Maij, D., & Rutjens, B. T. (2020). Development of a Porous Theory of Mind scale. Journal of Cognition and Culture20, 41-65. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Preston, J. L. (2020). Science and religion: A rocky relationship shaped by shared psychological functions. In Vail, K., & Routledge, C. (Eds.) The science of religion, spirituality, and existentialism (pp. 373-385). Elsevier: Academic Press. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & van der Lee, R. (2020). Spiritual skepticism? Heterogeneous science skepticism in the Netherlands. Public Understanding of Science29, 335-352. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., von Hecker, U., Proulx, T., & Haddock, G. (2020). Powerful men on top: Stereotypes interact with metaphors in social categorizations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 46(1), 36–65. [link]


Fetterman, A. K., Rutjens, B. T., Wilkowski, B. M., & Landkammer, F. (2019). On post-apocalyptic & doomsday prepping beliefs: A new measure, its correlates, and the motivation to prep. European Journal of Personality, 33, 506-525. [link]

McPhetres, J., Rutjens, B.T., Weinstein, N., & Brisson, J.A. (2019). Modifying attitudes about modified foods: increased knowledge leads to more positive attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6421-29. [link]


Hanel, P., Zarzeczna, N., & Haddock, G. (2018). Sharing the same political ideology yet endorsing different values: European left- and right-wing political supporters are more heterogeneous than moderates. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(7), 874-882. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality: An introduction. In B.T. Rutjens & M.J. Brandt (Eds.). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge. [link]

Sutton, R. M., Petterson, A., & Rutjens, B. T. (2018). Post-truth, anti-truth, and can’t-handle-the-truth: How responses to science are shaped by concerns about its impact. In B.T. Rutjens & M.J. Brandt (Eds.). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Sutton, R. M., & van der Lee, R. (2018). Not all skepticism is equal: Exploring the ideological antecedents of science acceptance and rejection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(3)384-405. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Heine, S. J., Sutton, R. M., & van Harreveld, F. (2018). Attitudes towards science. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 125-165. [link]

2017 and earlier

Van der Lee, R., Ellemers, N., Scheepers, D., & Rutjens, B.T. (2017). In or out? How the perceived morality (vs. competence) of prospective group members affects acceptance and rejection. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 748-762. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., & van Harreveld, F. (2017). Why are Protestants more prosocial than Catholics? A comparative study among orthodox Dutch believers. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion27, 65-81. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Kay, A. C. (2017). Compensatory Control Theory and the psychological importance of perceiving order. In M. Bukowski, I. Fritsche, A. Guinote, & M. Kofta (Eds.), Current Issues in Social Psychology – Coping with lack of control in a social world (pp. 83-97). New York: Routledge. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Heine, S. J. (2016). The immoral landscape? Scientists are associated with violations of morality. PLoS ONE11(4): e0152798. [link] [data]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., van Elk, M., & Pyszczynski, T. (2016). A march to a better world? Religiosity and the existential function of belief in social-moral progress. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion26(1), 1-18. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2016). Priming of supernatural agent concepts and agency detection. Religion, Brain & Behavior6(1), 4-33. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., & van der Pligt, J. (2015). The development of the illusion of control and sense of agency in 7-to-12-year old children and adults. Cognition, 145, 1-12. [link]

Meijers, M. H. C., & Rutjens, B. T. (2014). Affirming belief in scientific progress reduces environmentally friendly behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology44, 487-495. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B. T., Schneider, I. K., Nohlen, H. U., & Keskinis, K. (2014). In doubt and disorderly: Ambivalence promotes compensatory perceptions of order.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1666-1676. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2013). Step by step: Finding compensatory order in science. Current Directions in Psychological Science22, 250-255. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., Kreemers, L. M., & Noordewier, M. K. (2013). Steps, stages, and structure: Finding compensatory order in scientific theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142,313-318. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2012). Regulating psychological threat: The motivational consequences of threatening contexts. In K. J. Jonas & T. A. Morton (Eds.), Restoring civil societies: the psychology of intervention and engagement following crisis (Social issues and interventions) (pp. 38-56). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. [link]

Vail, K. E., Juhl, J., Arndt, J., Vess, M., Routledge, C., & Rutjens, B. T. (2012). When death is good for life: Considering the positive trajectories of terror management. Personality and Social Psychology Review16, 303-329. [link]

Schneider, I.K., Rutjens, B.T., Jostmann, N.B., & Lakens, D. (2011). Weighty matters: Importance literally feels heavy. Social Psychological and Personality Science2, 474 – 478. [link]

Wojtkowiak, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2011). The postself and terror management theory: Reflecting on after death identity buffers existential threat. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 21, 137-144. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2010). Deus or Darwin: Randomness and belief in theories about the origin of life. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology46, 1078-1080. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2010). Yes we can: Belief in progress as compensatory control. Social Psychological and Personality Science , 1, 246-252. [link]

Wojtkowiak, J.,Rutjens, B. T., & Venbrux, E. (2010). Meaning making and death: A Dutch survey study. Archive for the Psychology of Religion32, 363-373.

Rutjens, B. T., & Loseman, A. (2010). The society-supporting self: System justification and cultural worldview defense as different forms of self-regulation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations13, 241-250.

Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld,F. (2009). Things will get better: The anxiety-buffering qualities of progressive hope. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin35, 535-543. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B. T., Rotteveel, M., Nordgren, L. F., & van der Pligt, J. (2009). Ambivalence and decisional conflict as a cause of psychological discomfort: Feeling tense before jumping off the fence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 167-173. [link]

Edited volumes

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., van der Lee, R., & Zarzeczna, N. (2021). “We don’t believe you”: A group processes approach to anti-science beliefs and endorsement of alternative facts. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations Special Issue. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Other publications

Rutjens, B. T. (2023). We moeten goed leren twijfelen aan de wetenschap. Financieel Dagblad. [link]

Rutjens, B. T. (2019). De psychologische wortels van antivaccinatie-overtuigingen. In Pierik, R. (Ed.). Hoe nu verder met de vaccinatietwijfel? [link]

Rutjens, B. T. (2018). What makes people distrust science? Surprisingly, not politics. Aeon[link]

Van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2018). Alles onder controle. Skepter31(2), 18-22.

de Dreu, C. K. W., Rutjens, B. T., & van Kleef, G. A. (2016). De veranderende positie van de hoogleraar en de promovendus. In F. van Harreveld, & A. P. Buunk (Eds.), Pligtsbesef: Een geschiedenis van de Nederlandse sociale psychologie (pp. 53-66). ASPO Press.

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2013). Sense-making through science. The Inquisitive Mind.

Van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2013). Dat kan geen toeval zijn: De psychologie van ons bijgeloof (The Psychology of Superstition). Uitgeverij Nieuw Amsterdam

Rutjens, B. T. (2012). Start making sense: Compensatory responses to control- and meaning threats. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Amsterdam. [link]