Academic Publications

2022 and in press/prep

Hoogeveen, S., Haaf, J. M., Bulbulia, J. A., Ross, R. M., McKay, R., Altay, S., Bendixen, T., Berniūnas, R., Cheshin, A., Gentili, C., Georgescu, R., Gevais, W. M., Hagel, K., Kavanagh, C. M., Levy, N., Neely, A., Qiu, L., Rabelo, A., Ramsay, J. E., Rutjens, B. T., Turpin, H., Uzarevic, F., Wuyts, R., Xygalatas, D., & van Elk, M. (in press). The Einstein effect provides global evidence for scientific source credibility effects and the influence of religiosity. Nature Human Behaviour. doi: 10.31234/

Većkalov, B., Zarzeczna, N., McPhetres J., van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B.T. Psychological distance to science as a unifying predictor of science scepticism across domains. In prep.

Martens, J. P., & Rutjens. B. T.SMaRT: Synthesizing threat-compensation research using Sense Motivation and Response Theory. Under review.

Rutjens, B. T., Niehoff, E., & Heine, S. J. The (im-)moral scientist? Measurement and framing effects shape the association between scientists and immorality. Under review. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Véckalov, B., Niehoff, E., & Rutjens, B. T. Decreased psychological distance to gene editing reduces public scepticism. Under review.


Rutjens, B. T., Zarzeczna, N., & van der Lee, R. (2021). Science rejection in Greece: Spirituality predicts vaccine scepticism and low faith in science in a Greek sample. Public Understanding of Science, 1-9. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Većkalov, B., Gligorić, V., & Rutjens, B.T. (2021). Letter to the Editors of Psychological Science: Boosting Understanding is Unlikely to Correct False Beliefs About Most Science Domains: Regarding van Stekelenburg et al. (2021). Psychological Science. [link]

Većkalov, B., Zarzeczna, N., Niehoff, E., McPhetres, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). A matter of time… Temporal orientation and perception contribute to the ideology gap in climate change scepticism. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 78, 101703 [link]

Gligorić, V., Silva, M., Eker, S. G., van Hoek, N., Nieuwenhuijzen, E., Popova, U., & Zeighami, G. (2021). The usual suspects: How psychological motives and thinking styles predict the endorsement of well-known and COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs. Applied Cognitive Psychology [link]

Martens, J. P., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). Book review of The Acceleration of Cultural Change by R. Alexander Bentley and Michael J. O’Brien (2017). Journal of Cognition and Culture, 21, 202-202. [link]

Van Mulukom, V., Muzzulini, B., Rutjens, B. T., van Lissa, C.J., & Farias, M. (2021). The psychological impact of threat and lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exacerbating factors and mitigating actions. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11 (7), 1318-1329. [link]

Noordewier, M. K., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). Personal need for structure shapes the perceived impact of reduced personal control. Personality and Individual Differences, 170, 110478. [link]

Ruggeri, K., Većkalov, B., Bojanić, L., Andersen, T. L., Ashcroft-Jones, S., Ayacaxli, N., Barea-Arroyo, P., Berge, M. L., Bjørndal, L. D., Bursalıoğlu, A., Bühler, V., Čadek, M., Çetinçelik, M., Clay, G., Cortijos-Bernabeu, A., Damnjanović, K., Dugue, T. M., Esberg, M., Esteban-Serna, C., … Folke, T. (2021). The general fault in our fault lines. Nature Human Behaviour. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Sengupta, N., van der Lee, R., van Koningsbruggen, G. M., Martens, J. P., Rabelo, A., & Sutton, R. M. (2021). Science skepticism across 24 countries. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 13(1), 102-117. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., & van der Lee, R. (2021). Science skepticism in times of COVID-19. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 24, 276-283. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., van der Lee, R., & Zarzeczna, N. (2021). A group processes approach to antiscience beliefs and endorsement of “alternative facts”. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 24, 513-517. [link]


Storm, I., Rutjens, B. T., & van Harreveld, F. (2020). Personal experience or cultural tradition: The difference between Christian identity in the Netherlands and Denmark. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 10, 428-443. [link]

Van Elk, M., Maij, D., & Rutjens, B. T. (2020). Development of a Porous Theory of Mind scale. Journal of Cognition and Culture20, 41-65. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Preston, J. L. (2020). Science and religion: A rocky relationship shaped by shared psychological functions. In Vail, K., & Routledge, C. (Eds.) The science of religion, spirituality, and existentialism (pp. 373-385). Elsevier: Academic Press. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & van der Lee, R. (2020). Spiritual skepticism? Heterogeneous science skepticism in the Netherlands. Public Understanding of Science29, 335-352. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., von Hecker, U., Proulx, T., & Haddock, G. (2020). Powerful men on top: Stereotypes interact with metaphors in social categorizations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 46(1), 36–65. [link]


Fetterman, A. K., Rutjens, B. T., Wilkowski, B. M., & Landkammer, F. (2019). On post-apocalyptic & doomsday prepping beliefs: A new measure, its correlates, and the motivation to prep. European Journal of Personality, 33, 506-525. [link]

McPhetres, J., Rutjens, B.T., Weinstein, N., & Brisson, J.A. (2019). Modifying attitudes about modified foods: increased knowledge leads to more positive attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6421-29. [link]


Hanel, P., Zarzeczna, N., & Haddock, G. (2018). Sharing the same political ideology yet endorsing different values: European left- and right-wing political supporters are more heterogeneous than moderates. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(7), 874-882. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality: An introduction. In B.T. Rutjens & M.J. Brandt (Eds.). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge. [link]

Sutton, R. M., Petterson, A., & Rutjens, B. T. (2018). Post-truth, anti-truth, and can’t-handle-the-truth: How responses to science are shaped by concerns about its impact. In B.T. Rutjens & M.J. Brandt (Eds.). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Sutton, R. M., & van der Lee, R. (2018). Not all skepticism is equal: Exploring the ideological antecedents of science acceptance and rejection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(3)384-405. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Heine, S. J., Sutton, R. M., & van Harreveld, F. (2018). Attitudes towards science. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 125-165. [link]


Van der Lee, R., Ellemers, N., Scheepers, D., & Rutjens, B.T. (2017). In or out? How the perceived morality (vs. competence) of prospective group members affects acceptance and rejection. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 748-762. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., & van Harreveld, F. (2017). Why are Protestants more prosocial than Catholics? A comparative study among orthodox Dutch believers. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion27, 65-81. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Kay, A. C. (2017). Compensatory Control Theory and the psychological importance of perceiving order. In M. Bukowski, I. Fritsche, A. Guinote, & M. Kofta (Eds.), Current Issues in Social Psychology – Coping with lack of control in a social world (pp. 83-97). New York: Routledge. [link]


Rutjens, B. T., & Heine, S. J. (2016). The immoral landscape? Scientists are associated with violations of morality. PLoS ONE11(4): e0152798. [link] [data]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., van Elk, M., & Pyszczynski, T. (2016). A march to a better world? Religiosity and the existential function of belief in social-moral progress. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion26(1), 1-18. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2016). Priming of supernatural agent concepts and agency detection. Religion, Brain & Behavior6(1), 4-33. [link]


van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., & van der Pligt, J. (2015). The development of the illusion of control and sense of agency in 7-to-12-year old children and adults. Cognition, 145, 1-12. [link]


Meijers, M. H. C., & Rutjens, B. T. (2014). Affirming belief in scientific progress reduces environmentally friendly behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology44, 487-495. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B. T., Schneider, I. K., Nohlen, H. U., & Keskinis, K. (2014). In doubt and disorderly: Ambivalence promotes compensatory perceptions of order.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1666-1676. [link]


Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2013). Step by step: Finding compensatory order in science. Current Directions in Psychological Science22, 250-255. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., Kreemers, L. M., & Noordewier, M. K. (2013). Steps, stages, and structure: Finding compensatory order in scientific theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142,313-318. [link]


Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2012). Regulating psychological threat: The motivational consequences of threatening contexts. In K. J. Jonas & T. A. Morton (Eds.), Restoring civil societies: the psychology of intervention and engagement following crisis (Social issues and interventions) (pp. 38-56). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. [link]

Vail, K. E., Juhl, J., Arndt, J., Vess, M., Routledge, C., & Rutjens, B. T. (2012). When death is good for life: Considering the positive trajectories of terror management. Personality and Social Psychology Review16, 303-329. [link]


Schneider, I.K., Rutjens, B.T., Jostmann, N.B., & Lakens, D. (2011). Weighty matters: Importance literally feels heavy. Social Psychological and Personality Science2, 474 – 478. [link]

Wojtkowiak, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2011). The postself and terror management theory: Reflecting on after death identity buffers existential threat. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 21, 137-144. [link]


Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2010). Deus or Darwin: Randomness and belief in theories about the origin of life. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology46, 1078-1080. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2010). Yes we can: Belief in progress as compensatory control. Social Psychological and Personality Science , 1, 246-252. [link]

Wojtkowiak, J.,Rutjens, B. T., & Venbrux, E. (2010). Meaning making and death: A Dutch survey study. Archive for the Psychology of Religion32, 363-373.

Rutjens, B. T., & Loseman, A. (2010). The society-supporting self: System justification and cultural worldview defense as different forms of self-regulation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations13, 241-250.


Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld,F. (2009). Things will get better: The anxiety-buffering qualities of progressive hope. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin35, 535-543. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B. T., Rotteveel, M., Nordgren, L. F., & van der Pligt, J. (2009). Ambivalence and decisional conflict as a cause of psychological discomfort: Feeling tense before jumping off the fence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 167-173. [link]

Edited volumes

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Other publications

Rutjens, B. T. (2019). De psychologische wortels van antivaccinatie-overtuigingen. In Pierik, R. (Ed.). Hoe nu verder met de vaccinatietwijfel? [link]

Rutjens, B. T. (2018). What makes people distrust science? Surprisingly, not politics. Aeon[link]

Van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2018). Alles onder controle. Skepter31(2), 18-22.

de Dreu, C. K. W., Rutjens, B. T., & van Kleef, G. A. (2016). De veranderende positie van de hoogleraar en de promovendus. In F. van Harreveld, & A. P. Buunk (Eds.), Pligtsbesef: Een geschiedenis van de Nederlandse sociale psychologie (pp. 53-66). ASPO Press.

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2013). Sense-making through science. The Inquisitive Mind.

Van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2013). Dat kan geen toeval zijn: De psychologie van ons bijgeloof (The Psychology of Superstition). Uitgeverij Nieuw Amsterdam