Academic Publications

2024 and in press

Pauer, S., Rutjens, B.T., Brick, C., Lob, A., Buttlar, B., Noordewier, M., Schneider, I., & van Harreveld, F. Is the effect of trust on risk perceptions a matter of knowledge, control, and time? An extension and direct replication attempt of Siegrist and Cvetkovich (2000). Social Psychological and Personality Science, in press.

Pauer, S., Rutjens, B.T., van Harreveld, F. Trust is good, control is better: The role of trust and personal control in response to threat. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, in press. 

Gligorić, V., Van Kleef, G. A., & Rutjens, B. T. How Social Evaluations Shape Trust in 45 Types of Scientists. Plos One, in press. [link]

Gligorić, V., Clerc, R., Arkensteijn, G., Van Kleef, G. A., & Rutjens, B. T. Stereotypes and Social Evaluations of Scientists Have Different Antecedents and Consequences. Public Understanding of Science, in press.

Gligorić, V. & Obradović, S. (2024). Active rejection or passive indifference? Mixed-methods evidence on national (dis)identification. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Hornsey, M. J. The psychology of science rejection. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, in press. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Hanel, P. H. P., Rutjens, B. T., Bono, S. A., Chen, Y. H., & Haddock, G. Scientists, speak up! Source impacts trust in health advice across five countries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, in press.

Folk, D., Rutjens, B.T., Van Elk, M., & Heine, S.J. Dare to know! The existential costs of a faith in science. Journal of Positive Psychology, in press. [link]

Većkalov, B., Zarzeczna, N., McPhetres, J., van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2024). Psychological distance to science as a predictor of science skepticism across domains. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 50(1), 18–37. [link]


Većkalov, B., van Stekelenburg, A., van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2023). Who Is Skeptical About Scientific Innovation? Examining Worldview Predictors of Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology, and Human Gene Editing Attitudes. Science Communication45(3), 337-366. [link]

Vegt, K. R., Elberse, J. E., Rutjens, B. T., Voogt, M. H., & Baâdoudi, F. (2023). Impacts of citizen science on trust between stakeholders and trust in science in a polarized context. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 25(6), 723-736.

Rutjens, B. T., Ackers, C. A., & van Kleef, G. A. (2023). I’m (not) sorry: Interpersonal effects of neutralizations after a transgression. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 29(4), 831-848. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Većkalov, B., & Rutjens, B. T. (2023). Spirituality and intentions to engage in Covid-19 protective behaviours. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 17(8), e12765. [link]

van Mulukom, V., Turpin, H., Haimila, R., Purzycki, B. G., Bendixen, T., Kundtová Klocová, E., Řezníček, D., Coleman, T. J. III, Maraldi, E., Sevinç, K., Schjoedt, U., Rutjens, B. T., & Farias, M. (2023). What do non-religious non-believers believe in? Secular worldviews around the world. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 15(1), 143-156. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., Bertlich, T., Većkalov, B., & Rutjens, B. T. (2023). Spirituality is associated with COVID-19 vaccination skepticism. Vaccine, 41(1), 226-235. [link]


Rutjens, B. T., & Većkalov, B. (2022). Conspiracy beliefs and science rejection. Current Opinion in Psychology, 101392. [link]

Gligorić, V., van Kleef, G. A., & Rutjens, B. T. (2022). Social evaluations of scientific occupations. Scientific Reports, 12, 18339. [link]

Martens, J. P., & Rutjens, B. T. (2022). Spirituality and religiosity contribute to ongoing COVID-19 vaccination rates: Comparing 195 regions around the world. Vaccine: X, 100241. [link]

Gligorić, V., Feddes, A.R, & Doosje, B. (2022). Political bullshit receptivity and its correlates: a cross-country validation of the concept. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 10(2), 411-429. [link]

Ruggeri, K., Panin, A., Vdovic, M., Većkalov, B. et al. (2022). The globalizability of temporal discounting. Nat Hum Behav. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Zarzeczna, N., & van der Lee, R. (2022). Science rejection in Greece: Spirituality predicts vaccine scepticism and low faith in science in a Greek sample. Public Understanding of Science, 31 (4), 428 – 436. [link]

Pauer, S., Rutjens, B.T., Ruby, M.B., Perino, G., & van Harreveld, F. (2022). Meating conflict: Toward a model of ambivalence-motivated reduction of meat consumption. Foods11(7):921. [link]

Hoogeveen, S., Haaf, J.M., Bulbulia, J.A. et al. (2022). The Einstein effect provides global evidence for scientific source credibility effects and the influence of religiosity. Nature Human Behavior. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Niehoff, E., & Heine, S. J. (2022). The (im-)moral scientist? Measurement and framing effects shape the association between scientists and immorality. PLoS ONE,17(10): e0274379. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Sengupta, N., van der Lee, R., van Koningsbruggen, G. M., Martens, J. P., Rabelo, A., & Sutton, R. M. (2022). Science skepticism across 24 countries. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 13(1), 102-117. [link]


Zarzeczna, N., Većkalov, B., Gligorić, V., & Rutjens, B.T. (2021). Letter to the Editors of Psychological Science: Boosting Understanding is Unlikely to Correct False Beliefs About Most Science Domains: Regarding van Stekelenburg et al. (2021). Psychological Science. [link]

Većkalov, B., Zarzeczna, N., Niehoff, E., McPhetres, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). A matter of time… Temporal orientation and perception contribute to the ideology gap in climate change scepticism. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 78, 101703 [link]

Gligorić, V., Silva, M., Eker, S. G., van Hoek, N., Nieuwenhuijzen, E., Popova, U., & Zeighami, G. (2021). The usual suspects: How psychological motives and thinking styles predict the endorsement of well-known and COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 35(5), 1171-1181. [link]

Gligorić, V., Vilotijević, A., & Većkalov, B. (2021). Does the term matter? The labeling effect on the perception of ethnic minorities: The case of The Romani in Serbia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 85, 69-81. [link]

Martens, J. P., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). Book review of The Acceleration of Cultural Change by R. Alexander Bentley and Michael J. O’Brien (2017). Journal of Cognition and Culture, 21, 202-202. [link]

Van Mulukom, V., Muzzulini, B., Rutjens, B. T., van Lissa, C.J., & Farias, M. (2021). The psychological impact of threat and lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exacerbating factors and mitigating actions. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11 (7), 1318-1329. [link]

Noordewier, M. K., & Rutjens, B. T. (2021). Personal need for structure shapes the perceived impact of reduced personal control. Personality and Individual Differences, 170, 110478. [link]

Ruggeri, K., Većkalov, B., Bojanić, L., Andersen, T. L., Ashcroft-Jones, S., Ayacaxli, N., Barea-Arroyo, P., Berge, M. L., Bjørndal, L. D., Bursalıoğlu, A., Bühler, V., Čadek, M., Çetinçelik, M., Clay, G., Cortijos-Bernabeu, A., Damnjanović, K., Dugue, T. M., Esberg, M., Esteban-Serna, C., … Folke, T. (2021). The general fault in our fault lines. Nature Human Behaviour. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., & van der Lee, R. (2021). Science skepticism in times of COVID-19. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 24, 276-283. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., van der Lee, R., & Zarzeczna, N. (2021). A group processes approach to antiscience beliefs and endorsement of “alternative facts”. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 24, 513-517. [link]


Gligorić, V. & Vilotijević, A. (2020). “Who said it?” How contextual information influences perceived profundity of meaningful quotes and pseudo-profound bullshit. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34(2), 535–542. [link]

Storm, I., Rutjens, B. T., & van Harreveld, F. (2020). Personal experience or cultural tradition: The difference between Christian identity in the Netherlands and Denmark. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 10, 428-443. [link]

Van Elk, M., Maij, D., & Rutjens, B. T. (2020). Development of a Porous Theory of Mind scale. Journal of Cognition and Culture20, 41-65. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Preston, J. L. (2020). Science and religion: A rocky relationship shaped by shared psychological functions. In Vail, K., & Routledge, C. (Eds.) The science of religion, spirituality, and existentialism (pp. 373-385). Elsevier: Academic Press. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & van der Lee, R. (2020). Spiritual skepticism? Heterogeneous science skepticism in the Netherlands. Public Understanding of Science29, 335-352. [link]

Zarzeczna, N., von Hecker, U., Proulx, T., & Haddock, G. (2020). Powerful men on top: Stereotypes interact with metaphors in social categorizations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 46(1), 36–65. [link]


Fetterman, A. K., Rutjens, B. T., Wilkowski, B. M., & Landkammer, F. (2019). On post-apocalyptic & doomsday prepping beliefs: A new measure, its correlates, and the motivation to prep. European Journal of Personality, 33, 506-525. [link]

McPhetres, J., Rutjens, B.T., Weinstein, N., & Brisson, J.A. (2019). Modifying attitudes about modified foods: increased knowledge leads to more positive attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6421-29. [link]


Hanel, P., Zarzeczna, N., & Haddock, G. (2018). Sharing the same political ideology yet endorsing different values: European left- and right-wing political supporters are more heterogeneous than moderates. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(7), 874-882. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality: An introduction. In B.T. Rutjens & M.J. Brandt (Eds.). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge. [link]

Sutton, R. M., Petterson, A., & Rutjens, B. T. (2018). Post-truth, anti-truth, and can’t-handle-the-truth: How responses to science are shaped by concerns about its impact. In B.T. Rutjens & M.J. Brandt (Eds.). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Sutton, R. M., & van der Lee, R. (2018). Not all skepticism is equal: Exploring the ideological antecedents of science acceptance and rejection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(3)384-405. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., Heine, S. J., Sutton, R. M., & van Harreveld, F. (2018). Attitudes towards science. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 125-165. [link]

2017 and earlier

Van der Lee, R., Ellemers, N., Scheepers, D., & Rutjens, B.T. (2017). In or out? How the perceived morality (vs. competence) of prospective group members affects acceptance and rejection. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 748-762. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., & van Harreveld, F. (2017). Why are Protestants more prosocial than Catholics? A comparative study among orthodox Dutch believers. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion27, 65-81. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Kay, A. C. (2017). Compensatory Control Theory and the psychological importance of perceiving order. In M. Bukowski, I. Fritsche, A. Guinote, & M. Kofta (Eds.), Current Issues in Social Psychology – Coping with lack of control in a social world (pp. 83-97). New York: Routledge. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Heine, S. J. (2016). The immoral landscape? Scientists are associated with violations of morality. PLoS ONE11(4): e0152798. [link] [data]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., van Elk, M., & Pyszczynski, T. (2016). A march to a better world? Religiosity and the existential function of belief in social-moral progress. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion26(1), 1-18. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2016). Priming of supernatural agent concepts and agency detection. Religion, Brain & Behavior6(1), 4-33. [link]

van Elk, M., Rutjens, B. T., & van der Pligt, J. (2015). The development of the illusion of control and sense of agency in 7-to-12-year old children and adults. Cognition, 145, 1-12. [link]

Meijers, M. H. C., & Rutjens, B. T. (2014). Affirming belief in scientific progress reduces environmentally friendly behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology44, 487-495. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B. T., Schneider, I. K., Nohlen, H. U., & Keskinis, K. (2014). In doubt and disorderly: Ambivalence promotes compensatory perceptions of order.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1666-1676. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2013). Step by step: Finding compensatory order in science. Current Directions in Psychological Science22, 250-255. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., Kreemers, L. M., & Noordewier, M. K. (2013). Steps, stages, and structure: Finding compensatory order in scientific theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142,313-318. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2012). Regulating psychological threat: The motivational consequences of threatening contexts. In K. J. Jonas & T. A. Morton (Eds.), Restoring civil societies: the psychology of intervention and engagement following crisis (Social issues and interventions) (pp. 38-56). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. [link]

Vail, K. E., Juhl, J., Arndt, J., Vess, M., Routledge, C., & Rutjens, B. T. (2012). When death is good for life: Considering the positive trajectories of terror management. Personality and Social Psychology Review16, 303-329. [link]

Schneider, I.K., Rutjens, B.T., Jostmann, N.B., & Lakens, D. (2011). Weighty matters: Importance literally feels heavy. Social Psychological and Personality Science2, 474 – 478. [link]

Wojtkowiak, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2011). The postself and terror management theory: Reflecting on after death identity buffers existential threat. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 21, 137-144. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2010). Deus or Darwin: Randomness and belief in theories about the origin of life. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology46, 1078-1080. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2010). Yes we can: Belief in progress as compensatory control. Social Psychological and Personality Science , 1, 246-252. [link]

Wojtkowiak, J.,Rutjens, B. T., & Venbrux, E. (2010). Meaning making and death: A Dutch survey study. Archive for the Psychology of Religion32, 363-373.

Rutjens, B. T., & Loseman, A. (2010). The society-supporting self: System justification and cultural worldview defense as different forms of self-regulation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations13, 241-250.

Rutjens, B. T., van der Pligt, J., & van Harreveld,F. (2009). Things will get better: The anxiety-buffering qualities of progressive hope. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin35, 535-543. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Rutjens, B. T., Rotteveel, M., Nordgren, L. F., & van der Pligt, J. (2009). Ambivalence and decisional conflict as a cause of psychological discomfort: Feeling tense before jumping off the fence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 167-173. [link]

Edited volumes

Rutjens, B. T., van der Linden, S., van der Lee, R., & Zarzeczna, N. (2021). “We don’t believe you”: A group processes approach to anti-science beliefs and endorsement of alternative facts. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations Special Issue. [link]

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Other publications

Rutjens, B. T. (2023). We moeten goed leren twijfelen aan de wetenschap. Financieel Dagblad. [link]

Rutjens, B. T. (2019). De psychologische wortels van antivaccinatie-overtuigingen. In Pierik, R. (Ed.). Hoe nu verder met de vaccinatietwijfel? [link]

Rutjens, B. T. (2018). What makes people distrust science? Surprisingly, not politics. Aeon[link]

Van Harreveld, F., & Rutjens, B. T. (2018). Alles onder controle. Skepter31(2), 18-22.

de Dreu, C. K. W., Rutjens, B. T., & van Kleef, G. A. (2016). De veranderende positie van de hoogleraar en de promovendus. In F. van Harreveld, & A. P. Buunk (Eds.), Pligtsbesef: Een geschiedenis van de Nederlandse sociale psychologie (pp. 53-66). ASPO Press.

Rutjens, B. T., van Harreveld, F., & van der Pligt, J. (2013). Sense-making through science. The Inquisitive Mind.

Van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., & Rutjens, B. T. (2013). Dat kan geen toeval zijn: De psychologie van ons bijgeloof (The Psychology of Superstition). Uitgeverij Nieuw Amsterdam

Rutjens, B. T. (2012). Start making sense: Compensatory responses to control- and meaning threats. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Amsterdam. [link]